Hujjat-ul-Islam Hazrat Imam Muhammad Ghazali Biography (تذکرہ / سوانح)
Hujjatul Islam Imam Ghazaliرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ
Name and Lineage:
His Kunyat was Abu Hamid and title was Hujjatul Islam. His name was Muhammad son of Muhammad son of Ahmed Tosi, Ghazali, Shafi’i.
He was born in the ‘Tos’ city of Khurasan in 450 AH/ 1058 AD. His father used to trade in threads. In this connection, his family is called ‘Ghazali’. This way of having connected to someone was used in those areas, such as ‘Attar’ is called Attari and Qassar is known as Qassari.
Acquisition of Knowledge:
He received early education from his city and he studied the books of Fiqh from Hazrat Ahmed son of Muhammad Raaz Kaani. Then he went to Jarjan in the service of Imam Abu Nasr Ismaili. Later on, he became the disciple of Imam-ul-Harmain Al-Juwainiرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ in Nishapur and he got the complete expertise in the principles of religion, ethical issues, debate, logic, wisdom, and philosophy etc.
Allegiance and Caliphate (Khilafat):
He became murid of (got the allegiance from) Abu Ali Fazal son of Muhammad son of Ali Farmadi Tosi علیہ الرّحمۃ .
Character and Peculiarities:
He was the Mujaddid-e-Islam, Hujjat-ul-Islam, highly expertise in Islamic sciences, great reformer, author of many books and the philosopher of Islam in his time. He chose the discipleship of Imam-ul-Harmain and he got the expertise in the religious knowledge, logic and philosophy in a very short time. Even that he became the center of the eyes of Islamic world. Along with knowledge, Almighty Allah also bestowed him the abundant part from the piety and abstinence, worship and riyazat (mystic exercise) and wealth of the manner of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم.
Imam Ghazaliرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ left the deep impressions upon the Muslim world through his thought-provoking views, even today, which have the basic status for the reformation of Islamic philosophy, Sufism, knowledge and wisdom, spirituality, social values and ethics etc. Shah-e-Seljuk whose empire was spread from China to Europe, Imam Ghazaliرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ challenged him and said, “Alas! The necks of Muslims are being broken by the distress and suffering and necks of your horses are being bent by the necklaces of gold and silver.”
آئینِ جواں مرداں حق گوئی و بے باکی اللہ کے شیروں کو آتی نہیں روباہی
In the age of fifty three years, this sun of Islamic world went down (passed away) in 14 Jamadi-al-Thani, 505 AH/ 20 December 1111 AD.