Ameer-ul-Momineen Hazrat Umar son of Abdul Azizرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ
Name and Lineage:
His name is UMAR and kunyat is Abu Hafs. His genealogy is as follows:
“Hazrat Umar son of Abdul Aziz son of Marwan son of Hakam and his respected mother name is Umm-e-Asim daughter of Sayyiduna Asim son of Farooq-e-Azamعلیھم الرّضوان . Thus, she was a granddaughter of Farooq-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . In terms of that the blood of Farooq-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ was mixed in her veins.
Date of Birth:
He was born in Madina-tul-Munawwarah in 61 or 63 Hijrah.
A Glad Tiding of Farooq-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ:
Once, Ameer-ul-Momineen Farooq-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ dreamt. After getting up, he said, “Among my descendants, a person on whose face will have a weal, will fill the earth with justice and fairness.” His blessed son Hazrat Abdullah son of Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنھما frequently used to say that I wish I want to know about him, who is the one of the descendant of my respected father, on whose face will have a weal and will fill the earth with justice and fairness? Time went on passing and the family of Farooq-e-رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ was waiting for looking at the interpretation of Farooq-e-Azam’s dreamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . Even that grandson of Hazrat Asim son of Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنھما was born. (Seerat Ibn-e-Jozi, P. 10-11)
Acquisition of Knowledge
His respected father Abdul Azizرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ was the governor of Egypt and was very well behaved. He appointed Hazrat Saleh son of Keesanرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ as a teacher of Hazrat Umar son of Abdul Azizرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیھما. Hazrat Salehرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ paid the right of his education and trained him well. Therefore, he got the privilege to memorize the Holy Quran in his childhood. He was also participated in teaching circle of the great companions of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم . Such as, Hazrat Sayyiduna Anas son of Malik, Saaib son of Zaid and Saeed son of Museebعلیھم الرّضوان etc. After getting the knowledge of the Holy Quran, Hadith, Fiqh, Arabic literature and its grammar in their blessed companions, he was holding such a status that the contemporary and renowned scholars kept on confessing of his graces and perfections. Therefore, Allama Zahbi presented a short introduction of him in following words:
“He was a great Imam of the Jurisprudence, Scholar of Hadith and he had the highly expertise in Hadith. The great and renowned scholars of that time used to come to meet him for resolving the significant issues.”
Character and Peculiarities:
After Khulafa-e-Rashideen علیھم الرّضوان, the sovereign of Muslim whose name is luminously written at the top of history that was Abu Hafs Umar son of Abdul Azizرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیھما . When he took the supreme authority, Islamic empire had been tremendously expanded at that time but along with that many defects had created in the regime (system of government) and the golden era of Khulafa-e-Rashideen had become an outdated story. Hazrat Umar son of Abdul Azizرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ disjoined those faults from the root during the short period of his caliphate. Once again, he brought back the blessed era of the Khulafa-e-Rashideen علیھم الرّضوان by blowing a real soul of the Islam in the body of nation through the revivalist achievements. For this, Jurists called him a revivalist (Mujaddid) of the first Hijrah and historians gave him the title of ‘Khalifah Rashid’. As it is written in Abu Daud Sharif that Hazrat Abu Sufyan Sauri رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said that Khulafa-e-Rashideen are five, Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq, Hazrat Umar Farooq, Hazrat Usman, Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Umar bin Abdul Azizعلیھم الرّضوان .
His respected father was holding a governor post of Egypt for twenty-one years. There was the plenty of wealth so he was brought up in a luxury environment, which effect lasted until becoming the caliphate. He had polite nature and was a well-dressed personality but he was a righteous young man. He used to wear the best dress in his youth life and he would change several dress in a day. He would like the fragrant and he would go wherever, atmosphere would fill with sweet smell. As soon as he took the burden of caliphate, a sense of the fulfillment regarding the obligation completely changed his life. In regards to being well dressed, he was the one who had an unique personality, who was the fond of fragrance and whose gait would reflect the pomp and show of the prestige and whose dress was pride. He had become an embodiment of humility and lowliness.
When he came back after funeral ceremony of Sulayman, the best horses were presented to ride for him but he refused to ride on them and said “my mule is enough for me.” He ordered, to send back them in Bait-ul-Maal. When Islamic soldiers came in front of him, he detached them and said, “I am also a Muslim like all Muslim.” When a proposal of distributing the assets of Sulayman among his heirs was presented, then he gave an order to submit all his assets in Bait-ul-Maal. As usual, it is thought at the time of return that he will definitely enter into royal palace but he went to a tent by saying “this tent is sufficient for me.” His maidservant figured that he was upset. When she asked about that, then he said,
“That is the matter of concern, that there is none of Ummat-e-Muhammadi from east to west, whose right is not upon me.”
He was always worried about supervising the rights of Ummat-e-Muslimah and complying with the orders of Almighty Allah and regarding their implementations, by which the signs of anxiety and grief would always appear on his blessed face. He gave an order to his wife “Submit all the wealth and jewelry in Baitul Maal. Otherwise, get away from me. His faithful wife complied with his order. There was not any maidservant appointed for his domestic work. His wife would do all domestic works herself. In short, his life had become an example of the poverty and content. All of his efforts and struggles were focused on this issue that once again, he could reminisce about the blessed era and practice of Farooq-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . That’s why he was called ‘the Fifth Khalifa-e-Rashid’ due to his pure life and memorable achievement.
He passed away on Wednesday on 25 Rajab-ul-Murajjab 101 Hijri and he was buried in ‘Dair-e-Sam’an’ close to Halab (Aleppo).مزید