Huzoor Ghous-ul-Azam Sayyiduna Abu Muhammad Mohiuddin Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ
Name and Lineage:
His name is ‘ABDUL QADIR’ (رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ) and ‘Abu Muhammad’ is his patronymic (Kunyat). His titles are ‘Mohiuddin, Peeran-e-Peer Dastagir, Sheikh-ush-Shuyukh, Mehboob-e-Subhani, Qandeel-e-Lamakani and Qutb-e-Rabbani etc. In general Muslims, he is known as ‘Ghaus-ul-Azam’ (رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ). His respected father’s name is ‘Hazrat Abu Saleh Musaرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ ’ and his respected mother’s name is ‘Hazrat Fatimaرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہا . He is ‘Syed’ by both parents. By his respected father, his genealogy connects with Sayyiduna Imam Hasan son of Ali-ul-Murtazaرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنھما and from his respected mother side, his lineage connects with Sayyiduna Imam Husain son of Hazrat Ali کرّم اللہ وجہہ الکریم.
Date of Birth:
He was born in the 1st of Ramadan-ul-Mubarak, 471 AH.
Acquisition of Knowledge:
At the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad to acquire knowledge. He found the great teachers such as, Hazrat Abu Syed Ali Makhramiرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ in knowledge of Fiqh, Hazrat Abu Bakr son of Muzaffarرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ in Hadith knowledge and Hazrat Abu Muhammad Jafarرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ in Tafseer.
Allegiance and Caliphate (Khilafat):
He took an oath of the allegiance on the blessed hand of Sayyiduna Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomiرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ and the saintly dress (Khirqa-e-Khilafat) was granted him.
Character and Peculiarities:
In the praise of Huzoor-e-Ghaus-e-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ , all the Auliya-e-Kiramعلیھم الرّحمہ wrote his good morals and virtues in large quantity. In terms of the character and peculiarities, no Wali is equal to him. Almighty Allah granted him such great qualities, that his contemporary could not live without appreciating him. Even the own and other non-Muslim was admirer of his attitude. He had the comprehensive personality of Islamic morals and human attributes. Sheikh Harurwaرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, “I did not see any generous, soft heart, broad minded and good moral person in my life like him.” Despite the high ranks and prestige, he used to respect for everyone, whether he is child or elder and he would always take the lead in Salaam. He would humbly and politely behave with weak and poor people and he would not accept the presents. If the king came, he did not respect him altogether. Neither he went to any king or minister nor he accepted the donations from them. He used to behave kindly with destitute people. No matter how many risks were posed, he never left the truth and he did not hesitate to tell the truth and he would speak the truth in front of the governors too. He would not care about anyone’s anger and he would not be frightened from anyone.
He would order to do good deeds and he would forbid to do bad deeds. He shook the palaces of sovereigns and rulers through true speaking habit. He was an embodiment of generosity and sacrifice. It was his generosity that whatever he had, he used to distribute it among the needy people. He was a beautiful example of forgiveness and kindness. He did not bear to oppress on anyone and he would get ready to help immediately but in his own cases, he has never been angry. He used to forgive people’s mistake and fault and he had the compassionate heart. This is a general consensus about his birth among all the Scholars and Auliyaعلیھم الرّحمہ that he was an congenital Waliرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ .
It is narrated by Sheikh Shahabuddin Soharwardiرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ in Manaqib-e-Ghousia that at the birth time of Sayyiduna Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilaniرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ , the five great miracles appeared from the unseen. Firstly, his respected father Syed Abu Saleh رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ dreamt in the night of the birth that the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم came and said, “O Abu Saleh (رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ)! Almighty Allah bestowed you a blessed son who is my and Almighty Allah’s beloved and his rank is exalted among all the Auliya and Qutubs.” Secondly, when he was born, the blessed footprint of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم was existent on his blessed shoulders, that is the clear proof of his sainthood. Thirdly, in state of the dream, Almighty Allah gave the glad tidings to the respected parents of him that the child who was born at your home, will be the head of Auliya-e-Kiramعلیھم الرّحمہ . Fourthly, at the time of his birth, nearly eleven hundred children were born in Gilan province, they all became the friends of Almighty Allah and no girl was born in Gilan. Fifthly, he was born in the night of new moon of Ramadan-ul-Mubarak. He did not drink his mother’s milk absolutely at day time, however he drank from sunset to dawn. The second year of his birth, there was some suspicion about sighting the new moon due to cloudy sky but Ghous-ul-Azamرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ did not drink his mother’s milk after pre-dawn, his respected mother got understood that today is the first date of Ramadan-ul-Mubarak, then he gave this news to the people. Later, it was confirmed that this news is true according to the reliable evidences.
He passed away on the 11th of Rabi-al-Thani in 560 AH/ February 1165 AD.
[Tazkira Mashaikh-e-Qadriaعلیھم الرّحمہ ]مزید