Imam-ul-Muslimeen Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ
Name and Lineage:
He was named ‘Jafar’ by the relation of Hazrat Jafar Tayyar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. His kunyat is Abu Abdullah, Abu Ismail and Abu Musa. His titles are Sadiq, Fazil, Tahir and Kamil. His genealogy is as follows:
“Imam Jafar Sadiq son of Imam Muhammad Baqir son of Ali Imam Zain-ul-Abideen son of Sayyid-ush-Shuhada Imam Husain son of Hazrat Ali-ul-Murtaza علیھم الرّضوان. He is ‘Siddiqui’ by the mother side and ‘Alavi Fatmi Syed’ from the father side. His maternal grandfather was the one of Faqihs of Madina-tul-Munawwarah. His respected mother Sayyidah Umm-e-Farwah was both the paternal and maternal great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr Siddique رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. For that reason, he used to say:
“ولدنی ابو بکر مرتین” i.e. I got the privilege the dual birth from Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ.
Date of Birth:
He was born on Friday on 17 Rabi-ul-Awwal 80 AH/ 24 April 702 AD in the illuminated atmosphere of Madina-tul-Munawwarah.
Acquisition of Knowledge:
As per the family traditions, he got the inward and outward knowledge from his respected father Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad Baqir رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, his respected grandfather Sayyiduna Imam Zain-ul-Abideenرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ and his respected maternal grandfather Faqih-e-Azam of Madina-tul-Munawwarah Sayyiduna Imam Qasim son of Muhammad رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . Besides of them, he also gained the Islamic knowledge from the companions of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم , Hazrat Sahl son of Saad and Hazrat Urwah son of Zubair رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہم .
Allegiance and Caliphate (khilafat):
He got the spiritual training from his respected father. In addition to that he also got the beneficence from his maternal grandfather Faqih-e-Azam of Madina-tul-Munawwarah Sayyiduna Imam Qasim son of Muhammad رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. Hazrat Imam Qasim رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ received the bounty from Hazrat Salman Farsi رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ and Hazrat Salman Farsi رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ also got the beneficence from Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ along with his blessed company.
Character and Peculiarities:
Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ was an emperor of the nation of the Prophet صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم, a guardian of the religion of Mustafaصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم , a perfect inheritor and manifestation of the knowledge of Nabawiyah, an Imam of the Ahl-e-Haq (pious men), a predecessor of the connoisseurs, a leader of the true lovers, a chief of the worshipers, a respected personality for the ascetics, and a scion of the family of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم . His perfections are so much that is hard to cover in written form. What may be the perfection more than it that Siraj-ul-Imams, Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifahرحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ reached the higher status by living in his service for two years and he said,
’’لولا السنان لھلک النعمان‘‘
)i.e. if I had not got the two years of his company, I would have been destroyed.(
Ubaid son of Rafay رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ said, “I saw Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . He had middle height, gorgeous body and his face was as beautiful as the sun might be revolving into his blessed face. He had black hair. The face could be seen through his blessed hair as the moon appeared in the dark night of the fourteenth.”
Amr son of Miqdaam رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, When I used to see Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ , suddenly this idea would come after looking at him that this luminous personality is surely belonging to the blessed family of Prophet علیہ السّلام.
Siraj-ul-Imams, Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifah رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, I did not see a greater Faqih than him in the Ahl-e-Bait علیھم الرضوان.
The renowned Muhaddith Hazrat Sufyan Sauri (thawri) رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, I did not see the scholar, ascetic, good-looking and generous gent like him.
Hazrat Imam Malik رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, I used to go in the service of Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. His personality was a beautiful combination of the moral and beauty of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم and he had the expertise in all knowledge. Despite of all relations and excellences, he had more fear of Almighty Allah than all.
Once, Hazrat Daud Tai رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ requested Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ by coming in his court. “O blessed child of Rasool صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم, give me advice because my heart has turned black.” He said, “You are the ascetic of this time. What is the need of my advice?” Daud requested, “O blessed child of Rasoolصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم , you got the superiority over all. Therefore, it is obligatory for you that you must give the advice to everyone.” He said, “O Abu Suleman! I fear that my ancestor, the leader of Prophetsصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم lest he should say to me on the day of Judgment, why did you not pay my right of following?” Because this work does not depend on the genealogical nobility, rather, liking of the deed is valid in the auspicious court of Almighty Allah. After listening that Daud رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ wept a lot and made the request in Allah’s court, “O my Allahجل جلالہ ! whose disposition is from the nature of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم and whose nature’s training was given by the signs of Prophethood. Whose ancestor is the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم and mother is Hazrat Fatima رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہا. When he is in a such surprising state. Hence, in what counting, I am.”
He passed away in 15 Rajab-ul-Murajjab 148 AH/ 765 AD in Madina-tul-Munwwarah and he was buried under the dome of Ahl-e-Bait in Jannat-ul-Baqi.