2nd Caliph of Islam Hazrat Umar Farooq (تذکرہ / سوانح)
Ameer-ul-Momineen Hazrat Umar bin (son of) Khattab
Name and Lineage:
His name is ‘HAZRAT UMAR FAROOQرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ’. Kunyat is ‘Abul Hafs’ and his title is ‘Farooq-e-Azam’. His blessed genealogy is given below:
“Hazrat Umar Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ son of Khattab son of Fuzail son of Abdul Uzza son of Riyah son of Abdullah son of Farat son of Zarah son of Adiy son of Ka’b son of Loyee”
His respected mother’s name is Hantama daughter of Hisham son of Mugheerah son of Abdullah son of Amr son of Makhzoom son of Yaqazah son of Marwah son of Ka’b. She was a cousin of Hazrat Khalid bin (son of) Walid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. By father, his lineage connects with the genealogy of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم on Ka’b. (Sharif-al-Tawarikh and Al-Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ)
Date of Birth:
He was born after thirteen years of ‘Waqia-e-Feel’ (the event of elephant). [Tareekh-ul-Khulafa and Al-Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ ]
Conversion to Islam:
Rasool Allah جل جلالہ و صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم used to pray that “اللھم اعزالاسلام بعمرابن الخطاب” O Almighty Allah, strengthen Islam with Umar bin Khattabرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . (Al-Sawaiq-al-Muhriqah, P.331) In this sense, Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ is the wish of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم . On the sixth year of the declaration of Prophethood and after three days of embracing Islam of Hazrat Hamza رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, he embraced Islam. In the pleasure of the conversion to Islam of Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ , Muslims raised such a slogan of ‘Takbeer’ (Allah-o-Akbar) aloud that the entire area resounded with that slogan. Hazrat Jibrail علیہ السّلام came to the auspicious court of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم and said with humility that O Rasool Allahعزوجل و صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم ! angels of the Sky are celebrating the happiness of accepting Islam of Hazrat Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ and they are congratulating you. When Hazrat Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ embraced Islam, this verse of the Holy Quran revealed.
“یا ایھاالنبی حسبک اللہ من اتبعک من المومنین”
“O you Prophet! (صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم) Allah is sufficient for you and those following you amongst the believers.” (Surah Al-Anfal, V. 63)
Excellences and Qualities:
Huzoor صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم said, “In previous Ummahs, Muhaddithin (Almighty Allah creates ‘Haq’ (the right) in their hearts and then He shows the Haq from their tongue.) used to be and Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ is the person in my Ummah, from whose tongue Allahجل جلالہ speaks.” (Al-Sawaiq-al-Muhariqah, P. 355) On which issue, Shaba-e-Kiram علیھم الرّضوان (the companions of the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم) would discussed to each other so divine command would reveal according to the opinion of Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . Many verses of the Holy Quran are witnesses to it. The Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم said, “If there had been a Prophet after me, Hazrat Umar bin Khattab رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ would have been.” (Jame Tirmidhi, V. 2, P. 563) In other words, the attributes which Prophets of Allah جل جلالہ و علیھم السّلام have, all was found in Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . Subhan Allahعزوجل , he had the great and unique personality.
The Caliphate of Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ :
It is narrated by Hazrat Abu Hurairah رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ that the Holy Prophetصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم said, “I dreamt that I put a small bucket into the well and I began to draw water from it and I pulled out as many buckets of water as Almighty Allah wished. After that, Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ pulled out one or two buckets from it and got tired. Then, Hazrat Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ moved forward and started pulling out that bucket. I have never seen a stronger person than Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ . He filled up the entire tank with water and irrigated the creature of Almighty Allah. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith, 2863)
This was the indication towards the caliphate of Hazrat Umar رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ. He conquered thousands city and town of Persia (Faris) and countless people embraced Islam.
He took the responsibility of Caliphate on Monday in 27 Jamadi-ul-Akhir, 13 Hijri. His caliphate period consisted of ten years and eight months. He conquered the area of 22 lac square miles without organized army within ten years. Rome and Iran which were two super power countries of that time, are also included in his victories. In today’s era of the satellite and submarines, any ruler of the world does not have such a big empire. Hazrat Umar Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ gave such system that is still existing in today’s world.
Ameer-ul-Momineen Hazrat Umar Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ used to pray that
“اللھم ارزقنی شھادۃ فی سبیلک واجعل موتی ببلد رسول صلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم” (Muwatta Imam Malik, Hadith, 934) O Almighty Allah grant me the martyrdom in the city of your beloved Messengerصلی اللہ تعالٰی علیہ وسلم and bestow me the place in his blessed feet. He got the martyrdom due to three wounds, which a malicious Zoroaster Abu Lulu Firoz assaulted with deceit.
There are different sayings about his martyrdom date. Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti رحمۃ اللہ تعالٰی علیہ said, “Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrahرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ stated that Hazrat Umarرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ was martyred on Wednesday on 26th Dhul Hijjah, 23 Hijri and he was buried on Saturday on the first night of Muharram-ul-Haram.” (Tareekh-ul-Khulafa, P. 310)
After his martyrdom, Hazrat Usman Ghaniرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ was chosen as the next Ameer (the leader of the followers of Islam) on 29th Dhul Hijjah, 23 Hijri and his funeral Salah was offered in Muharram-ul-Haram, 24 Hijri. Similarly, the narrations of 28, 29 and 1st Muharram-ul-Haram are also found.
[Sharif-al-Tawarikh, Khazinat-ul-Asfiya, Al-Farooqرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ, Ibn-e-Kaseer and Tabaqat ibn-e-Saadرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ]